Estonia is a Baltic country of 1.3 million people and four million hectares, half of which is forest.

Its government presents digitization as a cost-saving efficiency and an equalizing force.

Digitizing processes reportedly saves the state two per cent of its G.D.P. a year in salaries and expenses. Since that’s the same amount it pays to meet the NATO threshold for protection (Estonia—which has a notably vexed relationship with Russia—has a comparatively small military), its former President Toomas Hendrik Ilves liked to joke that the country got its national security for free.

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