The Kremlin has said there are no Russian troops in combat roles in Syria, though it has said there are trainers and advisers working alongside the Syrian military and also forces guarding Russia’s bases in western Syria.

But U.S. defence officials say most of Moscow’s air strikes have been targeting secular rebels in a bid to aid Kremlin ally President Bashar al Assad.

Although the two countries have agreed on air safety rules, their takeaways on the agreement differed greatly.

Customarily, neither the government, the state agencies, nor the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) directly cited the PKK by name in official statements, describing it instead as either “the separatist terrorist organization” or its members as “terrorists”.

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